Beliefs on Languages Teaching-Learning: Relevant Aspects to Research During Initial Teacher Education


  • Luciana Kinoshita Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Pará, UNIFESSPA



Beliefs, Foreign Language Teaching-Learning, Initial Teacher Education


This study deals with people’s beliefs in the foreign language teaching-learning process during the initial teacher education of foreign language teachers. We produced a substantiated integrative review from references related to foreign languages with an emphasis on English. The objective is to expose relevant considerations for the investigation of beliefs in the aforementioned context so that (future) students, teachers, and/or researchers who wish to examine the subject have an initial guide to use. To this effect, we conducted a bibliographical study about beliefs using the publications of Fives and Gill (2014), Kalaja (2015), Kinoshita (2018), and Majchrzak (2018), among others. The results indicate that the study of beliefs is necessary for understanding the language teaching-learning process in more diverse contexts, not only in initial teacher education.


Almeida Filho, J. C. P. (2010). Dimensões comunicativas no ensino de línguas. Campinas: Pontes.

Aragão, R. (2008). Emoções e pesquisa narrativa: transformando experiências de aprendizagem. Revista Brasileira de Lingüística Aplicada, 8(2), 295-320.

Barcelos, A. M. F. (2015). Student teachers’ beliefs and motivation, and the shaping of their professional identities. In Kalaja, P., Barcelos, A. M. F., Aro, M., & Ruohotie-Lyhty, M. Beliefs, agency and identity in foreign language learning and teaching (pp. 71-96). Palgrave Macmillan.

Barcelos, A. M. F. (2007). Reflexões acerca da mudança de crenças sobre ensino e aprendizagem de línguas. Revista Brasileira de Lingüística Aplicada, 7(2), 109-138.

Barcelos, A. M. F. (2004). Crenças sobre aprendizagem de línguas, lingüística aplicada e ensino de línguas. Linguagem & Ensino, Pelotas, 7(1), 123-156.

Barcelos, A. M. F. (1995). A cultura de aprender língua estrangeira (inglês) de alunos de Letras (Masters thesis). Instituto de Estudos da Linguagem, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil.

Benson, P. (2011). Language learning and teaching beyond the classroom: an introduction to the field. In Benson, P., & Reinders, H. (eds.) Beyond the language classroom: The theory and practice of informal language learning and teaching (pp. 07-16). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Davidson, H. E. (1991). The lost beliefs of Northern Europe. Routledge.

Deng, F., Chai, C. S., Tsai, C. C., & Lee, M. H. (2014). The relationships among Chinese practicing teachers' epistemic beliefs, pedagogical beliefs and their beliefs about the use of ICT. Educational Technology & Society, 17(2), 245-256.

Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. Boston: D.C. Heath.

Fives, H., & Gill, M. G. (eds.). (2014). International handbook of research on teachers' beliefs. New York/ London: Routledge.

Frijda, N. H., Manstead, A. S. R., & Bem, S. (2000). Emotions and beliefs: how feelings influence thoughts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hativa, N., & Goodyear, P. (eds.). (2002). Teacher thinking, beliefs and knowledge in Higher Education. Springer Netherlands.

Heiphetz, L., Gelman, S. A., & Young, L. L. (2017). The perceived stability and biological basis of religious beliefs, factual beliefs, and opinions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 156, 82-99.

Hernandez, M. D., Wang, Y. J., Minor, M. S., & Liu, Q. (2008). Effect of superstitious beliefs on consumer novelty seeking and independent judgment making: evidence from China. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 7(6), 424–438.

Horwitz, E. K. (2016a). Factor structure of the foreign language classroom anxiety scale. Psychological Reports, 119(1), 71-76.

Horwitz, E. K. (2016b). Reflections on Horwitz (1986): “Preliminary evidence for the validity and reliability of a foreign language anxiety scale”. TESOL Quarterly, 50(4), 932-935.

Horwitz, E. K. (2010). Foreign and second language anxiety. Language Teaching: surveys and studies, 43(2), 154-167.

Horwitz, E. K. (1988). The beliefs about language learning of beginning university foreign language students. The Modern Language Journal, 72(3), 283–294.

Horwitz, E. K. (1985). Using student beliefs about language learning and teaching in the foreign language methods course. Foreign Language Annnals, 18(4), 333-340.

Howlett, J. R., & Paulus, M. P. (2015). The neural basis of testable and non-testable beliefs. PLoS ONE, 10(5), 1-18.

Kalaja, P. (2015). ‘Dreaming is believing’: the teaching of foreign languages as envisioned by student teachers. In Kalaja, P., Barcelos, A. M. F., Aro, M., & Ruohotie-Lyhty, M. Beliefs, agency and identity in foreign language learning and teaching (pp. 124-146). Macmillan Palgrave.

Kalaja, P., Barcelos, A. M. F., Aro, M., & Ruohotie-Lyhty, M. (2015). Beliefs, agency and identity in foreign language learning and teaching. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kalaja, P., & Barcelos, A.M.F. (eds.). (2006). Beliefs about SLA: new research approaches. New York: Springer Netherlands.

Kinoshita, L. (2018). Crenças e expectativas sobre ensinar/aprender a ser professor de língua estrangeira (Representações de graduandos, formadores e agentes governamentais: o caso da formação docente inicial na Unifesspa). (Ph.D. dissertation). Faculdade de Educação, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Kovács, A. M. Kühn, S., Gergely, G., Csibra, G., & Brass, M. (2014). Are all beliefs equal? Implicit belief attributions recruiting core brain regions of theory of mind. PLoS ONE, 9(9), 1-6.

Kreitler, H., & Kreitler, S. (1972). The model of cognitive orientation: towards a theory of human behavior. British Journal of Psychology, 63, 9-30.

Leffa, J. V. (1991). A look at student's concept of language learning. Trabalhos de Linguística Aplicada, Campinas, SP, 17, 57-66.

Levi, I. (1991). The fixation of belief and its undoing: changing beliefs through inquiry. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lobel, T. E. (1982). The prediction of behavior from different types of beliefs. The Journal of Social Psychology, 118, 213-223.

Lyster, R. (2017). Content-based language teaching. In Loewen, S., & Sato, M. (eds.). The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition (pp. 87-107). New York: Routledge.

Majchrzak, O. (2018). Second language learning and teaching: learner identity and learner beliefs in EFL writing. Springer International Publishing.

Moreira, V., & Monteiro, D. C. (2010). O uso de instrumentos e procedimentos de pesquisa sobre crenças: promovendo formação reflexiva. Trabalhos em Lingüística Aplicada, 49(1), 205-221.

Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307-332.

Perine, C. M. (2012). Linguística Aplicada: crenças e o desafio de formar professores de línguas. Domínios de lingu@agem: revista eletrônica de linguística, 6(1), 364-392.

Richards, J. C., Gallo, P. B., & Renandya, W. A. (2001). Exploring teachers` beliefs and the processes of change. PAC Journal, 1(1), 41-58.

Richardson, V. (1996). The role of attitudes and beliefs in learning to teach. In Sikula, J. (Ed.). Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 102-119). New York: Macmillan.

Schafer, M., & Walker, S.G. (2006). Beliefs and leadership in world politics: methods and applications of operational code analysis. Palgrave Macmillan.

Schwitzgebel, E. (2015). Belief. Zalta, E. N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Summer Edition.

Van Den Steen, E. (2010). On the origin of shared beliefs (and corporate culture). RAND Journal of Economics, 41(4), 617-648.

Zheng, H. (2015). Teacher beliefs as a complex system: English language teachers in China. London: Springer International Publishing.