Multimedia-Influence-Achievement Model (MIAM)

Proposed New Model as Predictive Determinant of Academic Achievement


  • Godwill Chenyuei Akwene University of Yaounde, UY
  • Marcel Ndjodo Fouda University of Yaounde, UY



The recent outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increasing demand for new technologies to transmit learning content and facilitate student learning. This article aimed at presenting a new technology adoption model that examines the influence of multimedia exposure on learning motivation, and eventual student academic achievement. The current study focus propels the application of multimedia in education to facilitate students’ academic achievement. Using a sample of 354 students drawn from some secondary schools in Yaounde, data was collected through a questionnaire and analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The proposed new Multimedia-Influence-Achievement Model (MIAM) was tested and validated using SmartPLS 3.2.8 software. The analysis showed high factor loadings related to all the items indicating goodness of fit. The results showed that all six hypotheses expressed by the structural model were supported by the data. Multimedia exposure had a significant positive relationship with multimedia self-efficacy, attitude toward multimedia and learning motivation. Multimedia self-efficacy and attitude toward multimedia equally have significant positive relationship with learning motivation.  Furthermore, the results proposed that learning motivation is a predictive determinant of student’s academic achievement. In light of the above results, identification of facilitating conditions is a prerequisite to introduction of multimedia technology in the teaching and learning process.

Author Biographies

Godwill Chenyuei Akwene, University of Yaounde, UY

Faculty of Education, Instructor, and Ph.D. student

Marcel Ndjodo Fouda, University of Yaounde, UY

Higher Teacher Training College


Abdullah, Z.D., Ziden, A.B.A., Aman, R.B.C. & Mustafa, K.I. (2015). Students’ attitudes towards information technology and the relationship with their academic achievement. Contemporary Educational Technology. 6 (4), 338 – 354.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 50 (2), 179 – 211.

Alalwan, N., Al-Rahmi, W.M., Alfarraj, O., Alzahrani, N., Yahaya, N. & Al-

Rahmi, A.M. (2019). Integrated three theories to develop a model of factors affecting students’ academic performance in higher education, IEEE Access Vol. 9, 98725 – 98742.

Alsadoon, E. (2018). Motivating factors for faculty to use web applications in education. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 17(3), 73 - 90.

Amadu, L., Muhammad, S.S., Mohammed A.S., Owusu, G., & Lukman, S. (2018) Using technology acceptance model to measure the use of social media for collaborative learning in Ghana. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 8(4), 321 – 336.

Attuquayefio, S.N. & Addo, H. (2014). Using the UTAUT model to analyze students’ ICT adoption. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 10 (3) 75 – 86.

Buabeng-Andoh, C. (2012). Factors influencing teachers’ adoption and integration of information and communication technology into teaching: A review of the literature. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 8, (1), 136 – 155.

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13, 319–340.

Duker, J.; Bonney, E. A. & Adibi, M-G.D. (2018). Influence of the internet on the academic achievement of Senior High School students in the Cape Coast Metropolis of Ghana. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management (IJSRM), 6 (8), 547-557.

Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour: an introduction to theory and research, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39–50.

Garson, G.D. (2016). Partial least squares: Regression and structural equation models. Asheboro, Statistical Publishing Associates.

Gu, X., Zhu, Y. & Guo, X (2013). Meeting the “digital nativesâ€: Understanding the acceptance of technology in classrooms.

Guillén-Gamez, F.D. & Mayorga-Fernandez (2021). (Identification of variables that predict teachers’attitudes toward ICT in higher education for teaching and research: A study with regression. Journal of Sustainability. 12 (1312) 1-14.

Hair, J. F. Ringle, C. M. & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139–151.

Hair, Jr. J.F., Babin, B. J. & Krey, N. (2017). Covariance-Based Structural Equation Modeling in the Journal of Advertising: Review and Recommendations, Journal of Advertising, 46 (1), 163-177.

Isman, A. (2018). Diffusion of Twitter in Turkey. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology. 17 (4), 1– 7.

Kingsley, K. V., & Boone, R. (2008). Effects of multimedia software on achievement of middle school students in and American history class. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(2), 203–221.

Leow, F. & Neo, M. (2014). Interactive multimedia learning: Innovating classroom education in Malaysian university. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 13(2), 99-110.

Mamdani, M. (2019). Technology acceptance in the use of social networks by teachers and employees of education offices in ahwaz. The

Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 18 (1), 105 – 117.

Martin, F. & Klein, J.D. (2008). Effects of Objectives, Practice, and Review in Multimedia Instruction. Journal of Educational Multimedia and

Hypermedia, 17 (2), 171-189.

Marić, M. & SakaÄ, M. (2014). Individual and social factors related to students’ academic achievement and motivation for learning. Suvremenapsihologija, 17 (1), 63-79.

Mehra, V. & Far, Z. N. (2013) A scale to measure university teachers’ attitude towards ICT. International Journal of Teacher Educational Research, 2 (7), 10 – 25.

Mbah, T.B. (2010). The impact of ICT on students’ study habits. Case study: University of Buea, Cameroon. Journal of Science and Technology Education Research Vol. 1(5) 107 – 110.

Momani, A.M, & Jamous, M.J. (2017). The evolution of Technology Acceptance Theories. International Journal of Contemporary Computer Research (IJCCR), 1 (1), 51 -58.

Myers, D. G. (2010). Psychology (nine edition). New York, NY 10010: Worth Publishers.

Olushola, T. & Abiola, J.O. (2017). The efficacy of technology acceptance model: A review of theoretical models in information technology researches. Journal of research in business and management, 4 (11), 70-83.

Neo, M., Neo, T-K & Xiao-Lian, G. T. (2007). Constructivist approach to learning an interactive multimedia course: Malaysian students' perspectives. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 23(4), 470-489.

Neo, M.; Park, H.; Lee, M-J.; Soh, J-Y & Oh, J-Y (2015). Technology acceptance of healthcare E-learning modules: A study of Korean and Malaysian students’ perceptions. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 14 (2), 181 – 194.

Nunnaly, J. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Riswanto, A. & Aryani, S. (2017). Learning motivation and student achievement: description analysis and relationships both. The International Journal of Counseling and Education 2(1), 42-47.

Rogers, E.M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations, (4th ed). The Free Press, New York, NY.

Santos, G.M.M.C., Ramos, E. M.C.P.L.S., Escola, J. & Reis, M. J. C. S. (2019). ICT literacy and school performance. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology. 18(2), 19-39.

Senko, C. (2016). Achievement goal theory: A story of early promises, eventual discords, and future possibilities. In hand book of motivation at school. Wentzel, K.R. & Miele D.B. Routledge.

TopolovÄan, T. & Matijević, M. (2016). Constructivist Learning and Digital Media Research Papers on Knowledge, Innovation and Enterprise, Vol. 4, 78-97.

Ulusoy, K. (2011). Effects of multimedia usage in students’ attitude towards Turkish Republic Revolution History and Kemalism Lesson. Educational Research and Reviews, 6 (4), 358–366.

Unal-Colak, F. & Ozan, O. (2012). The effects of animated agents on students’ achievement and attitudes. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 13 (2), 96 – 111.

Usun, S. (2002). Undergraduate students’ attitudes on the use of computers in education. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 3 (2) 10, 62–70.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., &Davis, F. D. (2003). User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View, MIS Quarterly (27:3), 425-478.

Wigfield, A. &, Cambria, J. (2010). Students’ achievement values, goal orientations, and interest: Definitions, development, and relations to achievement outcomes. Developmental Review 30, 1–35.

York, T.T. Gibson, C. & Rankin, S. (2015). Defining and measuring academic success. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 20 (5), 1 – 20.

Zheng, J., Li, S., & Zheng, Y. (2017). Students’ technology acceptance, motivation and self-efficacy towards the eSchoolbag. An exploratory study. International Journal for Infonomics. 10(3), 1350 – 1358.