Evaluation of Mashhad city parks from the conformity of child-friendly city standards

Hoda Behravesh, Katayoon Alizadeh, Hamid Jafari

Abstract


With the current trend of urbanization and the increasing attractiveness of cities, urban environments are becoming the main bedrock of a new generation of children. The presence of children in the city is directly related to the quality of urban space and construction. Proper urban space provides a great deal of security and presence of the child and inadequate urban space eliminates it and causes a variety of social damages and problems. Public spaces such as parks and playgrounds are an important factor in socializing children (Anguluri & Narayanan, 2017). Children as the most sensitive and vulnerable group of society, while being influenced by the environment, have significant abilities in shaping or changing the environment around them (Pamela, Sruthi & Roger, 2015). Therefore, checking and evaluation of Mashhad city parks, as the second largest metropolis of Iran from the Conformity of Child-Friendly City Standards is necessary. This is an applied research that has been done by descriptive-analytical method. The target population in this thesis is 6-12 years old children, their parents and the relevant authorities or a group of experts in Mashhad according to population and housing census of 2016, who with the help of Cochran sample size formula, 390 children and parents, and 30 experts were interviewed. The studied parks in this paper are neighborhood scaled parks of Mashhad which it is a total of 528 cases, out of which 53 parks have been studied in municipalities of Mashhad. Data were analyzed using one-way chi-square, Spearman correlation coefficient, and univariate t-test. The results showed that most districts and neighborhood parks in Mashhad do not comply with the criteria and principles of child-friendly cities and physical-functional and socio-cultural components play the most roles in the presence of children in neighboring and neighborhoods scale parks in the city of Mashhad.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anguluri, R., & Narayanan, P. (2017). Role of green space in urban planning: Outlook towards smart cities. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 25, 58-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.ufug.2017.04.007

He, C., Liu, Z., Tian, J., & Ma Q. (2014). Urban expansion dynamics and natural habitat loss in China: a multiscale landscape perspective. Glob. Change Biol, 20(9), 2886-902. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12553

Hyojin N., & Seok I. N. (2018). Child-friendly city policies in the Republic of Korea. Children and Youth Services Review, 94, 545-556. DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.08.033

Manouchehri, B., & Alizadeh, K. (2014). Child-friendly city, a step towards a future sustainable city (Case study: Mashhad). MA thesis, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran. https://vaavak.com/feature/publisher/0102/

Matlabi, Q. (2001). Environmental Psychology of New Knowledge Serving Architecture and Urban Design. Fine Arts, 10, 52-67. https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=33314

Pamela, W., Sruthi, A-J., & Roger, H. (2015). Specializing Children's Rights: A Comparison of Two Case Studies from Urban India. Children, Youth and Environments-Child-Friendly Cities: Critical Approaches, 25(2), 33-85. https://doi.org/10.7721/chilyoutenvi.25.2.0033

Pauleit, S., Ennos, R., & Golding, Y. (2005). Modeling the environmental impacts of urban land use and land cover change - a study in Merseyside, UK. Landscape and Urban Planning, 71, 295-310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2004.03.009

Preuß, M., Nieuwenhuijsen, M., Marquez, S., Cirach, M., Dadvand, P., Triguero-Mas, M., & Zijlema, W. (2019). Low Childhood Nature Exposure is Associated with Worse Mental Health in Adulthood. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(10), 1809. doi:10.3390/ijerph16101809.

Shia, I. (2007). City Preparation for Children, Case Study: Tehran. Artistic and Cultural Organization of Tehran Municipality, Shahr Publication. https://www.kikojas.com/place

Shuolei, CH., Keith, M., Ch., & Shujuan, L. (2019). A comparison of park access with park need for children: A case study in Cache County, Utah. Landscape and Urban Planning, 187, 119-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2019.04.001

Van Rijswijk, L., & Haans, A. (2018). Illuminating for Safety: Investigating the Role of Lighting Appraisals on the Perception of Safety in the Urban Environment. Environment and behavior, 50(8), 889–912. doi:10.1177/0013916517718888

Weng, H. (2012). Remote sensing of impervious surfaces in the urban areas: requirements, methods, and trends. Remote Sens. Environ, 117, 34-49. DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2011.02.030

Zhang, Y., & Dai, SH. (2012). The domestic research of city children's outdoor activity space needs analysis of, China gardens, 02, 82-85. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705817329673




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14571/brajets.v14.n3.407-420

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Licensed under :

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Indexing, Scientific Societies and Directories

Logo CAPES Logo periodicos.CAPES Logo Google Scholar

Logo GIF Logo Latindex Logo BASE Logo PKP

Logo DIADORIM Logo IBICT Logo SIS

Logo Gaudeamus Logo ROAD Logo DOAJ