Covid-19 and Distance Assessment and Evaluation Models in Higher Education




The COVID-19 pandemic has posed enormous challenges to society. Various measures are being taken in higher education as online classes can be expected to persist for several months. However, the question of evaluation arises for which many institutions are not prepared. This perspective aims to explore various models and practices of formative and summative assessment and evaluation that can be adopted in the context of e-learning. Furthermore, it intends to identify a set of good practices and challenges that can be identified in the process of migration to the e-learning model. This study is relevant in the practical dimension for higher education institutions to adopt new approaches for monitoring and evaluating the activities developed by students in the e-learning environment.


Almeida, F., & Buzady, Z. (2019). Assessment of Entrepreneurship Competencies Through the Use of FLIGBY. Digital Education Review, 35, 151-169.

Alonso-Díaz, L., & Yuste-Tosina, R. (2015). Constructing a Grounded Theory of E-Learning Assessment. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 53(3), 315–344.

Borges, J. P., Junior, F. A., Faiad, C., & Rocha, N. F. (2014). Individual competences of distance education tutors. Educação e Pesquisa, 40(4), 935-950.

Cerezo, R., Bogarín, A., Esteban, M., & Romero, C. (2020). Process mining for self-regulated learning assessment in e-learning. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 32(1), 74–88.

Comerford, L., Mannis, A., DeAngelis, M., Kougioumtzoglou, I. A., & Beer, M. (2018). Utilising Database-Driven Interactive Software to Enhance Independent Home-Study in a Flipped Classroom Setting: Going beyond Visualising Engineering Concepts to Ensuring Formative Assessment. European Journal of Engineering Education, 43(4), 522–537.

Faraniza, Z. (2021). Blended learning best practice to answers 21st century demands. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1940, 1-9.

Gikandi, J. W. (2021). Enhancing E-Learning Through Integration of Online Formative Assessment and Teaching Presence. International Journal of Online Pedagogy and Course Design (IJOPCD), 11(2), 48-61.

Groen, M. M., & Eggen, T. J. H. M. (2020). Educational Test Approaches: The Suitability of Computer-Based Test Types for Assessment and Evaluation in Formative and Summative Contexts. Journal of Applied Testing Technology, 21(1), 12–24.

Houston, D., & Thompson, J. N. (2017). Blending Formative and Summative Assessment in a Capstone Subject: «It’s Not Your Tools, It’s How You Use Them». Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 14(3). 1-13.

Kasani, H. A., Mourkani, G. S., Seraji, F., & Abedi, H. (2020). Identifying the Weaknesses of Formative Assessment in the e-Learning Management System. Journal of Medical Education, 19(2), 1-7.

Korpi, S. (2019). Portfolio Project as Summative Language Assessment: Engaging Learners Online. International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education, 34(2). 1-18.

Lara, J. A., Aljawarneh, S., & Pamplona, S. (2020). Special issue on the current trends in E-learning Assessment. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 32, 1-8.

Markova, T., Glazkova, I., & Zaborova, E. (2017). Quality Issues of Online Distance Learning. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 237, 685-691.

Miranda, R. J., & Hermann, R. S. (2015). Methods & Strategies: Teaching in Real Time. Science and Children, 53(1), 80–85.

Naidu, S. (2017). Openness and flexibility are the norm, but what are the challenges? Distance Education, 38(1), 1-4.

Namyssova, G., Tussupbekova, G., Helmer, J., Malone, K., Afzal, M., & Jonbekova, D. (2019). Challenges and Benefits of Blended Learning in Higher Education. International Journal of Technology in Education, 2(1), 22-31.

Olasina, G. (2018). Factors of Best Practices of E-Learning among Undergraduate Students. Knowledge Management & E-Learning, 10(3), 265–289.

O’Neil, H. F. (2005). What Works in Distance Learning: Guidelines. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Schoepp, K. (2019). The State of Course Learning Outcomes at Leading Universities. Studies in Higher Education, 44(4), 615–627.

Serdyukov, P. (2017). Innovation in education: what works, what doesn’t, and what to do about it? Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, 10(1), 4-33.

Souza, A. M., & Polonia, A. C. (2015). Tutoring in Distance Education: New Proposals, Challenges and Reflections. International Journal of Educational Excellence, 1(2), 53-80.

Torres, A. P., Pimenta, L. A., & Kerbauy, M. T. M. (2017). O uso efetivo das tecnologias de informação e comunicação (TIC) no ensino superior. Conhecimento e Diversidade, 9(18), 123–143.

Tucker, R., & Morris, G. (2010). Anytime, anywhere, anyplace: Articulating the meaning of flexible delivery in built environment education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(6), 904-915.

Vershitskaya, E. R., Mikhaylova, A. V., Gilmanshina, S. I., Dorozhkin, E. M., & Epaneshnikov, V. V. (2020). Present-Day Management of Universities in Russia: Prospects and Challenges of E-Learning. Education and Information Technologies, 25(1), 611–621.

West, R. E. (2009). Insights from research on distance education learners, learning, and learner support. Distances et Savoirs, 7, 571-584.